San Andrés Island – WorldAtlas
The Republic of Colombia, a country located in the northwestern part of the South American continent, is administratively divided into a total of 32 departments and a capital district. The archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina is one of those departments of Colombia that includes the islands of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina.
The large coral island of San Andrés is located in the Caribbean Sea, approximately 80 km south of Providencia, 750 km northwest of the Colombian mainland and 200 km east of the Central American continent.
With an area of 26 km2, San Andrés is the largest island in the Colombian archipelago. The island is 13 km long and has a maximum width of 3 km. The island of San Andrés presents a relatively flat terrain with the highest point of the island culminating at an altitude of only 55 m. A small mountain range crisscrosses the island from south to north with Cerro La Loma (El Cliff) being its highest peak. The island of San Andrés is made up of fertile red clay soil and geological studies of this soil revealed that the island was formed due to a volcanic eruption which resulted in the deposition of these more rocks. ancient on the surface of the sea.
The central part of the island has many small hills like the lion hills, pebbles, flowers and orange trees. The entire island is mostly covered with grass and trees, and sandy beaches can be found along the coastline in the northern part of the island. There are no major rivers on the island.
Some rock features namely Fisher Rock, Bobby Rock, Tyler Rock and Boobie Rock are found in the southwestern part, while Rock Point is in the southeastern part of the island. A small coral reef surrounds the island on its northwestern part. Several sandbanks and small cays are also found here, including Johnny Cay, Rocky Cay, Haynes Cay, El Acuario Cay, and Coton Cay.
The island of San Andrés experiences a tropical climate with high temperatures throughout the year which is moderated by the trade winds that continuously blow over the island. The island of San Andrés faces a high humid wet season from May to January.
The island of San Andrés is covered with mangrove forests as well as various trees like breadfruit, coconut palms, local trees and lush green pastures. It is estimated that around 12 mangrove forests of different mangrove species are found on the island. The critically endangered San Andrés bird is endemic to the islands of the Colombian archipelago. Other avian species seen here include the white-winged dove, black-faced skullcap, yellow warbler, tropical mockingbird, and black-whiskered vireo. Many crabs and oysters are also found in the waters surrounding San Andrés Island. Many species of corals like brain coral, star coral, elkhorn coral, staghorn coral and finger coral are found on the shores of the island. The Jamaican bat is the only mammal found on San Andrés Island. The entire archipelago was designated a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve under the name of “Sea Flower Biosphere Reserve” in 2000.
It is believed that the islands of the Colombian archipelago were first settled by the Dutch at the end of the 16th century. The English Puritans occupied the islands and subsequently removed the Dutch settlers from the island in 1631. From around 1633 the English began to bring black slaves from Jamaica to work on the cotton plantations and sugar. The island of San Andrés was attacked by the Spanish in 1635. However, the British managed to expel the Spaniards from the island. It is believed that the island was a favorite haunt for many buccaneers, and the English privateer Sir Henry Morgan had established his base on the island in 1670. Spanish ships carrying valuable materials were attacked by these pirates. According to legend, Henry Morgan buried part of his treasure on San Andrés Island in the Morgan Underwater Cave.
The islands remained under British control until 1787, after which they were handed over to Spain. In 1803, Spain assigned the islands to the Viceroyalty of New Granada. Simón Bolívar occupied the island in 1818. In 1822, after the independence of the Spanish colonies in the Caribbean and South America, the inhabitants of the islands of San Andrés, Providence and Santa Catalina joined the Republic of Gran Colombia. However, Nicaragua has claimed the islands because of their proximity. A treaty between Nicaragua and Colombia was signed in 1928, which gave control of the islands to Colombia. The archipelago became a special municipality in 1972 and in 1991 it officially became a department of Colombia.